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Monday, December 29, 2014

Valences of the Elements

Chemistry of the Periodic Table
Many people believe that the valences of the elements are those which can be derived by looking at the Groups (columns) of the Periodic Table. It is true that these are the most common valences, but the real behavior of electrons is less simple. Here is a listing of element valences. Remember that an element's electron cloud will become more stable by filling, emptying, or half-filling the shell. Also, shells don't stack neatly one on top of another, so don't always assume an element's valence is determined by the number of electrons in its outer shell.
NumberElementValence
1Hydrogen(-1), +1
2Helium0
3Lithium+1
4Beryllium+2
5Boron-3, +3
6Carbon(+2), +4
7Nitrogen-3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8Oxygen-2
9Fluorine-1, (+1)
10Neon0
11Sodium+1
12Magnesium+2
13Aluminum+3
14Silicon-4, (+2), +4
15Phosphorus-3, +1, +3, +5
16Sulfur-2, +2, +4, +6
17Chlorine-1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18Argon0
19Potassium+1
20Calcium+2
21Scandium+3
22Titanium+2, +3, +4
23Vanadium+2, +3, +4, +5
24Chromium+2, +3, +6
25Manganese+2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26Iron+2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27Cobalt+2, +3, (+4)
28Nickel(+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29Copper+1, +2, (+3)
30Zinc+2
31Gallium(+2). +3
32Germanium-4, +2, +4
33Arsenic-3, (+2), +3, +5
34Selenium-2, (+2), +4, +6
35Bromine-1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36Krypton0
37Rubidium+1
38Strontium+2
39Yttrium+3
40Zirconium(+2), (+3), +4
41Niobium(+2), +3, (+4), +5
42Molybdenum(+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43Technetium+6
44Ruthenium(+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45Rhodium(+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46Palladium+2, +4, (+6)
47Silver+1, (+2), (+3)
48Cadmium(+1), +2
49Indium(+1), (+2), +3
50Tin+2, +4
51Antimony-3, +3, (+4), +5
52Tellurium-2, (+2), +4, +6
53Iodine-1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54Xenon0
55Cesium+1
56Barium+2
57Lanthanum+3
58Cerium+3, +4
59Praseodymium+3
60Neodymium+3, +4
61Promethium+3
62Samarium(+2), +3
63Europium(+2), +3
64Gadolinium+3
65Terbium+3, +4
66Dysprosium+3
67Holmium+3
68Erbium+3
69Thulium(+2), +3
70Ytterbium(+2), +3
71Lutetium+3
72Hafnium+4
73Tantalum(+3), (+4), +5
74Tungsten(+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75Rhenium(-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76Osmium(+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77Iridium(+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78Platinum(+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79Gold+1, (+2), +3
80Mercury+1, +2
81Thallium+1, (+2), +3
82Lead+2, +4
83Bismuth(-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84Polonium(-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85Astatine?
86Radon0
87Francium?
88Radium+2
89Actinium+3
90Thorium+4
91Protactinium+5
92Uranium(+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6

Reference: Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 8th Ed., Norbert A. Lange (Ed.), Handbook Publishers, Inc. 1952.

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